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The ClojureScript compiler currently directly prints JavaScript source code strings. It is desirable to instead produce a JavaScript Abstract Syntax Tree to simplify code generation, emit source maps, and to enable higher level optimizations.


  • Compiler should be more functionally pure
    • Code generation currently emits strings as a side effect
    • Enhancing the compiler is difficult because printing forces ordering and limits higher order composition
    • It's not safe to interleave multiple passes of analysis, transformations, and code generation
  • emit complects Code Generation and Code Printing

    • requires simultaneous consideration of JavaScript's abstract structure and particulars of syntax
    • code generation is trivially functionally pure; code printing could be, but wouldn't benefit much
  • SourceMaps! Strings lack structure to associate mappings
    • If you currently are printing "foo(bar)", you might need to assign different source lines to both foo and bar
    • Adding source mappings to printing would give very low mapping resolution for the current ad-hoc strings
    • Increasing the resolution would yield something that looks very much like an AST


  • Decouple code generation from code printing
  • Simplify compiler.clj
  • Include source mappings on outputted AST
  • Preserve compiler and generated code performance


  • Target the Google Closure AST
    • Advantages
      • Keeps us out of the JS AST design business
    • Disadvantages
      • Closure AST nodes are partially stateful
        • Each Node has an explicit parent reference
        • Cloning policy is necessary to reuse subtrees (wasn't an issue in my port so far, see below)
    • Alternative: Intermediate JavaScript AST as Clojure data-structures