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Futures and promises block the derefing thread. Once that is somewhat mitigated by notifying promises, we then get callback hell and inversion of control. These issues were addressed by F#, and later C# async/await, the latter of which has been copied by Scala. The same issues exist in Javascript.


Copy C# async/await. (async ...) establishes a block, within which (await a-future-or-promise) will relinquish control, wiring up a state machine representing the rest of the block to the notification of the future/promise. The async block itself returns a promise.

This will require notifying futures/promises. Relevant reading:

It will also require an ambient thread pool.